|Gila River Valley|
Beginning around AD 1300, migrating Salado populations from Arizona established settlements in portions of southwestern New Mexico that had been abandoned by the Mogollon people. These groups are distinguished from earlier inhabitants by their house construction techniques and tradition of polychrome ceramics expressed in stunning black and white on red jars.
Along the Gila River near Cliff, New Mexico, they built six to seven villages of 100 to 200 rooms each. Two of these settlements, Ormand Village and Dinwiddie, were excavated from 1965 - 1966 as part of the Cliff Highway Project.
The location of Ormand Village was occupied many times between 1500 BC and AD 1450. The Salado people, it's last inhabitants, built over the remains of earlier pithouses, creating a community of four roomblocks arranged around a plaza with a large ceremonial structure in the center.
By the mid-fifteenth century, all of the Salado villages in New Mexico had been abandoned.
A map of the cultural features at Ormand Village, including storage pits and the apartment-like buildings archaeologists refer to as "roomblocks" or "pueblos."
This schematic drawing represents the components of typical Salado period wall and roof construction.
Ceramic bowls were placed in the floors of rooms at Ormand Village to catch cornmeal that fell from grinding slabs.